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Table 1. The number of amino acids in protein feed of animal origin in comparison with fish proteins (in% to fish protein)

Amino acids

Protein
Fish Milk Soya Yeast Wheat
Lysine 100 35,1 57 61,6 5,8
Methionine 100 34,1 38,4 27.4 9.7
Methionine + cystine 100 27.4 45.9 30.6 10.3
Tryptophan 100 65.6 103.1 92.1 21.9
Threonine 100 39.3 66.3 83.1 11.2
Phenylalanine 100 28.8 83.9 68.5 18.7
Valine 100 40.5 66.1 71.6 13.6
Leucine 100 5.7 77.6 69.2 16.9
Isoleucine 100 61.8 79.0 82.0 15.4
Histidine 100 66.9 83.1 59.6 16.9
Arginine 100 22.6 86.6 59.1 14.5
Glycine 100 13.1 42.3 45.6 11.6
BCB protein,% of egg white 88,6 87.9 86.7 81 71.3

Table 2. The availability of amino acids in fishmeal with different production technologies and temperature conditions

Amino acids Traditional industry standard manufacturing Drying
At low temperature 159º, 60 min. 159º, 180 min.
Arginine 83.3 63.6 48.6 31
Histidine 47.6 40.9 50 9.1
Isoleucine 95.7 91.8 77.6 17.4
Leucine 94.9 85.7 67.5 10.1
Lysine 98.4 79.3 77.3 5.5
Methionine 95.8 64.2 73.1 23.8
Phenylalanine 100 76.7 71.1 9.7
Threonine 100 100 92.3 3.6
Tryptophan 100 100 100 5
Valine 77 82 62 4.9

 From table 2 it is seen that the availability of amino acids from fishmeal for the bird’s organism is inversely related to the increase in heat treatment and the duration of exposure. An increase in the duration of the drying time of flour can lead to a more than tenfold decrease in the availability of individual amino acids and turn an expensive product into a fodder substance that is hazardous to birds’ health.

The real scourge of the quality of fish meal is currently considered to be its falsification. Our studies have shown that individual manufacturers and a fishmeal dealer network deliberately falsify a product by adding non-protein urea nitrogen to it. Along with urea, meat and bone meal, grain crops, and grain waste are introduced into the feed additive. As a result of the joint addition of these products, the protein level in fishmeal remains at around 60%, but such a product becomes hazardous to the health and productivity of the bird. There are frequent cases of mass death of young animals after the introduction of such flour, even at the level of 2-3% by weight.

Moreover, fishmeal, prepared even from high-quality raw materials and in compliance with standard technologies, requires special storage conditions and retains high nutritional properties for a short time.

Taking into account all the negative aspects associated with the composition and quality of standard fish meal as a feed product, we have developed a fundamentally new technology for producing fish feed additives (AD) for rations of farm animals and poultry of original composition.

AD is prepared from standard seafood - small fish, fresh products of its processing - fins, heads, internal organs, scales.

The main distinguishing feature of the AD technology is the low-temperature principle of dehydration of fish raw materials and the simultaneous provision of complete protection of all nutrient and biologically active substances of fish from destruction and biological inactivation by sorption on a special protein-carbohydrate carrier of plant origin.

The principle of production of AD allows you to get a stable feed product with a given level of crude protein in the range of 30-50%, ideally maintain the availability of all amino acids for the bird's body, avoid the accumulation of excessive amounts of histamine and cadaverine in the supplement, and completely protect it from the formation of glycyrrhizin. The low-temperature principle of obtaining fish feed additives provides protection of the fats of the finished feed from rancidity, completely preserves fish minerals unchanged, and concentrates vitamins A, E, and group B in their composition, which have high biological activity for the body. Despite the lower concentration of crude protein than in standard fish meal, AD completely retains an excellent growth-promoting effect on the body and does not cause a risk of erosive processes in the stomach of young birds.

AD technology is fundamentally different from the production of standard fishmeal. There is no negative process for cooking fish stock. AD technology is performed in a special apparatus PS -200. For the preparation of AD, a dry loose filler - a fat absorber (wheat bran, sunflower meal separated from fiber) is loaded into a metal thermos of the PS-200 apparatus. Filler - grease absorber with the help of special knives welded to the rotor and rotating at a speed of 2000 rpm, within a few seconds turns into a dusty column. At the same time, due to the angle of displacement of one relative to the other within 900C, the blades bring the dusty air environment of the contents of the metal thermos into the aerodynamic state. Turbulent air captures particles of the filler - grease absorber from the bottom of the thermos, gives them acceleration in the mode of centrifugal circular motion and lifts them in a spiral due to special guiding chippers fixed on the inner surface of the thermos. As a result of friction, the aerodynamic mixture is heated. For several seconds of rotor operation, dry filler particles form an aerodynamic annular torus, constantly mixed throughout the entire height of the thermos. Then, with the help of a loader, fish raw materials are fed to the bottom of the thermos in a ratio of 1: 7 with filler. The knives of the apparatus grind this raw material to a particle size of 0.1-0.8 mm, give it acceleration, and direct it to the annular torus, where it is mixed with the filler for 7-9 minutes. During this time, the controlled processes of internal friction raise the temperature of the mixture to 105-1250C. Due to this, the hygroscopic moisture of the mixture turns into steam and is removed. Proteins and fats of fish are successfully sorbed on the surface of the carrier. At a moisture content of 8-100С, the finished AD product is sent from the thermos of the apparatus for cooling and sieving and packaged in a sealed container.

Thus, the AD technology is performed in an aerodynamic gentle air-temperature mode, providing uniform distribution and grinding of raw materials on the one hand, and protection of nutrient and biologically active substances by sorption on the surface of the carrier on the other.
The finished product is a fish feed additive (AD), characterized by the following indicators of nutritional value (Table 3.).

Table 3. Chemical composition and nutritional value of fish feed additives (AD)
Indicators Units Boundary Values *
1 Crude protein %, not less 60
2 Crude fat %

13-15

3 Crude fiber % 4.5-5.1
4 Calcium 2.5-3.7 
5 Phosphorus 1.5-1.9 
6 Metabolism, for poultry Kcal / 100g 302-324 
7 Common salt 0.75-1.4 
8 Lysine 2.4-3.7 
9 Methionine 1.0-1.4 
10 Tryptophan 0.3-0.4 
11 Threonine 1,52-2,5 
12 В1 mg / kg 1-1.2
13 B2 mg / kg 3-3.6 
14 В3 mg / kg 10-12 
15 В4 mg / kg 2000-2200 
16 В5 mg / kg 60-66 
17 В6 mg / kg 8-12 
18 D2+D3 mg / kg 40-45 
19 Е mg / kg 17-20 

* The chemical composition and nutritional value of AD is strictly fixed for all indicators, depending on the level of protein in the supplement.

The data in table 3 indicate a high protein and energy nutritional value of fish feed additives. AD is characterized by a significant accumulation of the most important essential amino acids - lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine. In addition to this, the supplement is an excellent source of vitamins B, D and vitamin E.

AD can be introduced into the diet of poultry, starting from the age of one day at a dose of 4-7% by weight of feed. Such an additive completely replaces the standard fish meal with the absolute preservation of its established productive effect. AD is introduced into the feed, calculating the rate of input according to the level of protein and lysine. The machine calculation of entering AD into poultry diets shows its full viability as cheaper than standard fishmeal and a reliable source of essential nutrients for poultry.

The economics of the use of AD when growing young birds and broilers indicates a significant economic effect of including the considered additives in the diet - as a cheapener for complex feed rations for early bird feeding.

Experience shows that the meaning of introducing AD into the diet of young animals remains until the age of 10-12 weeks of life, when it is necessary to ensure intensive growth of muscle tissue and organs of egg formation of laying hens.