Podobed L.I., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher, Institute of Animal Science, UAAS
Dry fish feed products are among the most valuable protein components of feed for poultry. It is believed that it is practically impossible to meet the commercial schedule of poultry growth in the first month of its life without fish proteins (I.A. Egorov et al. 2005).
The originality and consequently the value of fish proteins can be determined by several factors:
- Fish proteins have the highest concentration of essential amino acids in the protein composition of all known nitrogenous compounds of animal origin.
- The ratio of amino acids of fish protein is as close as possible to the ratio of protein of bird eggs. This means that a chicken at an early age, consuming such a protein, continues to use the maximum available protein, as it did in the embryonic period.
- Fish protein is characterized by good test ratios: lysine: arginine, lysine: methionine, leucine: isoleucine: valine.
- The biological value of the protein (BCB) of fish proteins is 92-95% of the chicken egg protein according to WHO FAO.
- Digestibility of fish protein is maximum under conditions of complete absence of fiber and fluctuates at the level of 90-92% without any additives of exoenzymatic preparations.
- The composition of fish feed products has a powerful unidentified growth factor whose effect is known, but its biological nature has not been established yet.
In addition to the excellent qualities of proteins, fish feed products contain readily available minerals in an optimal ratio. Of particular value are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur, copper, zinc, cobalt, iodine. In ready-made fish supplements, a significant level of vitamins A, D and almost the entire B group is accumulated.
All these factors make it possible to use fishmeal as an obligatory component of diets for poultry, which guarantees the ideal protein composition of the whole diet and smooths out the shortcomings in the optimization of mineral and vitamin nutrition.
Nevertheless, specialists who actively use fishmeal in feeding poultry encounter some negative factors that appear when they are fed. In particular, it is known (V.I. Fisinin, et al. 2001) that the introduction of fish meal with a protein concentration of more than 60% into the diet of poultry stimulates the process of excess activation of gastric juice. This is also facilitated by the accumulation in the stored flour of the decay products of nucleoproteins and proteins - cadaverine and histamine. If the cadaverine level in the fish meal exceeds 1 mg / kg, and histamine 0.5 mg / kg, this product contributes to the formation of erosion of the gastric mucosa and results in the appearance of ulcers in the stomach and intestines. High-temperature drying of flour (more than 1200С) leads to the accumulation of a specific substance gizzerosin in it, which even more intensively violates gastric secretion.
Nevertheless, the main problem with the use of fishmeal, the main known source of fish protein, is the ever-increasing market price of this product. Today, fishmeal protein remains one of the most expensive poultry diets.
In addition, the high cost of fishmeal has moved many manufacturers to the temptation to obtain super-profits due to its falsification. Urea, soy proteins, meat and bone meal, bone meal, wheat bran and even grain waste can often be found in fishmeal.
Taking this into account, LLC NPO Biokor-Agro developed and patented an original technology for producing special fish feed additives (AD), the properties of which take into account all the negative aspects associated with the known characteristics of standard fish meal.
Features of the AD technological process lie in the complete absence of the technological operation of cooking fish raw materials. As part of the AD, a fat-absorbing agent is provided (a separated sunflower meal with a reduced concentration of fiber or prepared bran). Thanks to this component, the chemical composition of the finished additive is stabilized and the fish proteins are perfectly preserved. In the finished feed product, cadaverine, listamine and gizzerosin are not formed. As a result, AD does not have a negative effect on the body, and on gastric digestion in particular, in growing birds. The presence of a reliable and effective grease absorber is the key to high preservation of fats, free fatty acids and high energy nutritional value of the finished product. AD retains its nutritional value and freshness of fats for at least 4 months of storage from the date of manufacture.
The technological process for the production of AD (Fig. 1.) Includes the preparation of a grease trap, the creation of a ring aerodynamic torus, the gradual introduction of conventional fish raw materials into the rotating aerodynamic torus, the removal of moisture from the apparatus, and the unloading of finished products.
As a result, a loose uniform feed product is formed that is apparently no different from standard fish meal.
A feature of the technological process is the ability of the considered technological installation to produce a feed product with a given level of protein. Ideally, AD can be made with a protein concentration of 30, 40.50 and 60%. The cost of AD is calculated based on the concentration of protein in the composition of the feed product.
|Crude protein, on DIA,%||30, 40,50,60+||GOST 13494.4|
|Crude fiber, on ASV% (no more)||6||GOST 13496.2|
|Crude fat, on DIA%||up to 15||GOST 13496.15|
|Calcium, g / kg (not less)||25||GOST 28901|
|Phosphorus, g / kg (not less)||15||GOST 28902|
|Table salt,% (no more)||3||DSTU 3782|
|Energy value for poultry, Kcal / 100g||
In terms of chemical composition and feed value, AD can be classified as a concentrated protein source of a group of high-value fish proteins with a high concentration exchange energy (table 2).
The level of basic essential amino acids in the composition of AD varies,%: lysine 2.4-3.7; 1-1.4; tryptophan - 0.3-0.4; threonine 0.8-1.2%. This level and ratio of amino acids allows you to balance perfectly the diets of young birds with a feed rate of 3 to 7% by weight of feed.
AD is characterized by a rich vitamin composition (Table 3).
|Indicators||Concentration, mg / kg|
|Pantothenic acid, (B3)||10-12|
|Nicotinic acid, (B5)||60-66|
|Calciferols, D (2-3)||40-45|
A fish feed supplement, introduced at a dose of more than 3% by weight of the feed to the poultry, stabilizes the vitamin composition of the ready-to-feed product and allows you to compensate for flaws in the vitamin composition of the premix introduced into the feed.
AD fully retains the effect of an unidentified growth factor and does not adversely affect the muscle composition of growing young animals.
The additive is recommended as a complete substitute for fishmeal in the diets of chicks of all types of poultry. The optimal effect of its influence on the body appears at a dose of 5-7% by weight of feed. At the same time, the cost of fish protein in the composition of AD is significantly lower than the cost of protein of standard fish meal. Therefore, the inclusion of fish feed additives in the diet of chickens helps to reduce the cost of feeding by 5-9.5%. Practical feeding diets with the inclusion of 5% AD and only 11% soybeans in broilers ensured the ideal growth of young animals at the start and prepared the bird well for the intensive phase of productivity. In egg-laying chickens, AD starts well the process of laying. It becomes smooth, without problems with the quality of the shell. The use of fish supplements in the diet provides a gradual increase in egg mass, while minimizing cases of cloacitis and biting.
In addition to the regulated level of vegetable protein, AD does not contain any other “proteins” of falsifications. This is due to the disinterest of the manufacturer in supplying the market with the product with the cheapest fish protein known - less than 14 UAH per 1 kg (in a standard high-quality imported fish meal, protein cannot cost less than 17 UAH per 1 kg-2008). In addition, the falsification of AD is impossible to perform technologically due to a violation of the formation of the aerodynamic torus.
Thus, an optimal protein feed additive based on fish protein, AD, was created in terms of chemical composition and biological properties. The inclusion of AD in the diet of young poultry provides a complete and adequate replacement of fish proteins and contributes to the maximum efficiency of poultry growth. At the same time, all negative characteristics of the effect on the body of the bird, usually observed when feeding standard fish meal, are eliminated, and the quality of poultry products remains stably high.